If Wyoming can be said to have been acupmictured for energy, nowhere was this so variously evident as in the southwestem quadrant of the state, from the new coalfields near Rock Springs to the new oil fields of the Overthrust Belt, not to mention experimental attempts to extract petroleum from Eocene lacustrine shale, which -in that comer of Wyoming and adjacent parts of Colorado and Utah-contains more oil than all the rock of Saudi Arabia. More than the Union Pacific was after such provender now. “We are at the mercy of the east-coast and west-coast establishments,” Love said. “It’s been called energy colonization.” And while we traversed the region, with scene after scene returning us to this theme, his reactions were not always predictable. There were moments that emphasized the scientist in him, others that brought out zakelijke energie the fly-atit-folks discoverer of resources, and others that brought forth a vigorous environmentalist, conserving his native ground, fulminating in the face of effronteries to humanity and the earth. Love is a prospector in the name of the people, who looks for the wealth in exploitable rock. He is also a pure scientist, who will follow his instincts wherever they lead. And he is a frequent public lecturer who turns over every honorarium he receives to organizations like the Teton Science School and High Country News, whose charter is to understand the environment in order to defend it. Thus, he carries within himself the whole spectrum of tensions that have accompanied the rise of the environmental movement. He carries within himself some of the central paradoxes of his time. Among environmentalists, he seems to me to be a good deal less lopsided than many, although beset by contradictory interests, like the society he serves. He cares passionately about Wyoming. It may be acupunctured for zakelijke energie vergelijken energy, but it is still Wyoming, and only words and images, in their inevitable concentration, can effectively clutter its space: a space so great that you can stand on a hilltop and see not only what Jim Bridger saw but also-through dimming tracts of time-what no one saw.
In recent years, the number of ways to feel the elephant has importantly increased. While the science has assimilated such instruments as the scanning transmission electron microscope, the inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer, and the 39Ar/40Ar laser microprobe-not to mention devices like Vibroseis that thump the earth to reflect deep structures through data reported by seismic waves-the percentage of geologists has steadily diminished who go out in the summer and deal with rock, and the number of people has commensurately risen who work the year around in fluorescent light with their noses on printouts. This is the age of the analog geologist, who, like a watch with a pair of hands, now requires a defining word. For David Love, the defining word is “field.” Whereas all geologists were once like him, they zakelijke energie vergelijken are no longer, and his division of the science is field geology. He is the quintessential field geologist-the person with the rock hammer and the Brunton compass to whom weather is just one more garment to wear with his thousand-mile socks, the geologist who carries his two-hundred
gigabyte hard disk between his ears. There are young people following in his steps, people who still go out to scuff their boots and fray their jeans, but they have become greatly outnumbered by their contemporaries who feed facts and fragments of the earth into laboratory machines-activity that field people describe as black-box geology. Inevitably, some touches of tension have appeared between these worlds: ‘Who is the new structural geologist?” “Dorkney.” “Is he a field-oriented person?” “He’s a geophysicist, but he’s a good guy.” “That would be difficult.” Black-box geologists-also referred to as office geologists and laboratory geologists-have been known to say that field work is an escape mechanism by which their colleagues avoid serious scholarship. Their remarks may rarely be that overt, but the continuing relevance of field geology is not-to say the least-universally acknowledged. Some laboratory geologists, on the other hand, are nothing less than zakelijke energie eloquent in expressing their symbiosis with people of wide experience out in the terrain. “I spend most of my time working on computers and waving my arms,” the geophysicist Robert Phinney once said to me, adding that he required the help of someone’s field knowledge as a check, and without it would be in difficulty.
Yale had one of the better geology departments in the world, and its interests were commensurately global. It was syllogistic, encyclopedic, and stirred its students to extended effort-causing him to disappear into the library for months on end in what he calls his golden years. It was a department preoccupied with the Big Picture, and as a result it was not overcrowded with people who had seen a lot of outcrops. That, at any rate, is how it seemed to a student who had seen almost nothing but outcrops-close at hand, or slowly turning from the perspective of a saddle. In no way did this distinction diminish the reverence he felt for these eastern petrologues. “Their field geology was, let’s say, incomplete,” he will remark tenderly. He did his field work in exceptionally rugged country-in the Tetons for a time, during those grad-school summers, but mainly along the southern margin of the Absaroka Range, roughly a hundred miles northwest of the ranch. He chose an area of about three hundred thousand acres (five hundred square miles) with intent to zakelijke energie vergelijken develop an understanding of it sufficient for the completion of a doctoral thesis. Geologically, it was a blank piece of the earth. Virtually nothing was known. The area had been mapped topographically. He took the map with him. Some of its streams ran uphill. The Absarokas, it seemed, were a multilayered pile of pyroclastic debris-sedimentary rock whose components had once been volcanic outpourings. It was material that-after hardening-had been crumbled by weather and collected and moved by streams. The Absaroka volcanic sediments were a local part of the vast fill that had buried the central Rocky Mountains-a hard and therefore durable part. Their huge zakelijke energie boulders indicated close proximity to the vents from which the rock had poured. (On a relief map, the.Absarokas seem to spill out of Yellowstone Park.) During the Exhumation of the Rockies, the durability of these formations had left them in place. They resemble a battlement, standing seven thousand feet above the adjacent plains.
When one or another of the cowpunchers used a revolver, the man did not so much fire a shot as “slam a bullet.” If a ranch hand was tough enough, he would “ride anything with hair on it.” Coffee had been brewed properly if it would “Roat a horseshoe.” Blankets were “sougans.” A tarpaulin was a “henskin.” To be off in the distant ranges was to be “gouging around the mountains.” In Love’s stories of the ranch, horses come and go by the “cavvy.” If they are unowned and untamed, they are a “wild bunch” -led to capture by a rider “riding point.” In the Havor of his speech the word “ornery” endures. He describes his father as a “rough, kindly, strong-willed man” who would put a small son on each knee and-reciting “Ride a cockhorse to Banbury Cross to see a fine lady upon a white horse” -give the children bronco rides after dinner, explaining that his purpose was “to settle their stomachs.” Their mother’s complaints went straight up the stovepipe and zakelijke energie away with the wind. When their father was not reciting such Sassenach doggerel, he could draw Scottish poems out of the air like bolts of silk. He had the right voice, the Midlothian timbre. He knew every syllable of “The Lady of the Lake.” Putting his arms around the shoulders of his wee lads, he would roll it to them by the canto, and when they tired of Scott there were in his memory more than enough ballads to sketch the whole of Scotland, from the Caithness headlands to the Lammermuir Hills. David was fifteen months younger than his brother, Allan. Their sister, Phoebe, was born so many years later that she does not figure in most of these scenes. They were tl1e only children in a thousand square miles, where children outnumbered the indigenous trees. From the ranch buildings, by Muskrat Creek, the Wind River Basin reached out in buffalo grass, grama grass, and edible salt sage across the cambered erosional swells of the vast dry range. When the wind dropped, this zakelijke energie vergelijken whole wide world was silent, and they could hear from a great distance the squeak of a homed lark. The nearest neighbor was thirteen miles away. On the clearest night, they saw no light but their own. Old buffalo trails followed tl1e creek and branched from the creek: old but not ancient-there were buffalo skulls beside them, and some were attached to hide. The boys used the buffalo trails when they rode off on ranch chores for their father. They rode young and rode long, and often went without water.
In the Bronco, we moved through the snow toward the mountains, crossing the last of the Great Plains, which had been shaped like ocean swells by eastbound streams. Now and again, a pump jack was visible near the road, sucking up oil from deep Cretaceous sand, bobbing solemnly at its task-a giant grasshopper absorbed in its devotions. As we passed Cheyenne, absolutely all we could see in the whiteout was a raging, wind-whipped flame, two hundred feet in the air, at the top of a refinery tower. “Such a waste,” said Love. Had we been moving west across Wyoming about seventy-five million years ago, in the zakelijke energie vergelijken Campanian age of late Cretaceous time, we would, of course, have been at sea level in the most literal sense. The Laramie Range did not exist, nor did the Bighorns, the Beartooths, the Wind Rivers. There is no evidence of mountains at that time anywhere in Wyoming. In an oceangoing boat (which the Bronco in some ways resembled), we would have raised the coastline not far east of Rawlins. Beyond the beach and at least as far as Utah was flat marshy terrain. Earlier, there had been mountains-a few ranges that were largely in Colorado and poked some miles into Wyoming. They have been called the Ancestral Rockies; but they and the Rockies are scarcely more related than two families who happen at· different times to live in the same house. Those Pennsylvanian mountains had worn down flat two hundred and thirty million years before. There had been other mountains as well-in the same region-some hundreds of millions of years before that, in various periods of Precambrian time. The Precambrian zakelijke energie evidence, in fact, suggests numerous episodes, across two thousand million years, of the rise of big mountains and their subsequent wearing away-,-any of them as deserving as others to be called ancestral Rockies.
Much of Wyoming’s bentonite is Cretaceous in age and consistent in composition. Since it lies on every side of the mountain ranges, it seems not so much to imply as to certify that when it was so broadly deposited the mountains were not there. The Cretaceous is not far back in the history of the world. It’s in the last three per cent of time. Love walked back to the Bronco with a look on his face that suggested a man who had long since had his last beer. He said he was hungry. He said, “My belly thinks my throat’s kantoor huren per uur maastricht been cut.” Over the next rise was Rawlins, spread across the Union Pacific.
On October 20, i905, the two-horse stage left Rawlins soon after dawn-not a lot of time for stretcl;iing out the comforts of the wonderful Ferris Hotel. Eggs were packed under the seats, also grapes and oysters. There were so many boxes and mailbags that they were piled up beside the driver. On the waybill, the passengers were given exactly the same status as the oysters and the grapes. The young woman from Wellesley, running her eye down the list of merchandise, encountered her own name: Miss Ethel Waxham. The passenger compartment had a canvas roof, and canvas curtains at the front and sides.
The driver, Bill Collins, a young fellow with a four days beard, untied the bow-knot of the reins around the wheel, and swung up on the seat, where he ensconced himself with kantoor huren per uur amsterdam one leg over the mail bags as high as his head and one arm over the back of his seat, putting up the curtain between. “Kind o’ lonesome out here,” he gave as his excuse.
There were two passengers. The other’s name was Alice Amoss Welty, and she was the postmistress of Dubois, two hundred miles northwest. Her post office was unique, in that it was farther from a railroad than any other in the United States; but this did not inconvenience the style of Mrs. Welty.
“The surface of Europe, adorned before by a tropical vegetation and inhabited by troops of large elephants, enormous hippopotami, and gigantic carnivora, was suddenly buried under a vast mantle of ice, covering alike plains, lakes, seas, and plateaus,” he wrote in his Etudes sur les Glaciers (1840). “Upon the life and movement of a powerful creation fell the silence of death. Springs paused, rivers ceased to flow, the rays of the sun, rising upon this frozen shore (if, indeed, it was reached by them), were met only by the breath of the winter from the north and the thunders of the crevasses as they opened across the surface of this icy sea.” The reception all this got continued to be colder than the ice. Von Buch, author of co-working space maastricht the first geological map of Germany and already celebrated for his studies of volcanism, did not conceal his indignation. In fact, he had apparently removed Agassiz’s name from consideration for a professorial chair at the University of Berlin. Sir Roderick Murchison, the Scottish geologist who had identified and named the Silurian system, warned that he was prepared to “make fight.” Addressing the Geological Society of London, he said, “Once grant to Agassiz that his deepest valleys of Switzerland, such as the enormous Lake of Geneva, were formerly filled with snow and ice, and I see no stopping place. From that hypothesis you may proceed to fill the Baltic and the northern seas, cover southern England and half of Germany and Russia with similar icy sheets, on the surfaces of which all the northern boulders might have been shot off. So long as the greater number of the practical geologists of Europe are co-working space amsterdam opposed to the wide extension of a terrestrial glacial theory, there can be little risk that such a doctrine should take too deep a hold of the mind.” Whatever the cause, the effects Agassiz was studying impressed von Humboldt as purely local phenomena. Agassiz’s “descente aux enfers” -into the innards of the glacier-alarmed his friend as a physical risk commensurate with the risk Agassiz was taking with his paleontological reputation.
“Science is not a detached, impersonal thing. People will be influenced as much by someone who is a spellbinder as by someone with a good, logical story. It is spellbinding to say that these belts are exotic and were built through time by micro or macro pieces aggregated to the continent. But the fact that you’ve got seismic lines without any apparent suture lines makes you wonder what really co-working space breda happened. Where are those Devonian and Taconic sutures? Are they just not being recognized? Or are they in fact thrust plates?”
I thought also of field trips in the company of geologists trying to puzzle out the details of plate-tectonic theory. Metamorphic details. Geophysical details. The dialogue is not without crescendos. They debate in a language exotic in itself, and shuffle like a blackjack deck the stratigraphic units of the world. In Vermont, say, walking the hard-packed dirt roads among Black Angus meadows and roll-mop hay, over plank bridges-“LEGAL LOAD LIMIT 24,000 POUNDS” -and down through the black spruce to Cambrian outcrops jutting up as ledges in fast, clear streams, they argue. “You’ve got the right first approximation, but you’ve got to go ahead and prove that it’s the correct approximation.” “We’re talking about developing fabrics.” “It’s pretty clear now that fabrics don’t develop that way.” “For an anisotropic crystal, I don’t think you can say what you just said. You’ve got to put in another sentence there to justify using that approximation.” “I don’t see co-working space haarlem what you’re saying. Anisotropic or not, that’s the definition of being stressed.” “When you say the thermodynamic stability of the phase that’s growing is sigma i, sigma 2, sigma 3, divided by 3, it’s proof for an isotropic crystal. For garnets growing, that’s fine. For mica, that’s not fine.” The hills roundabout are decidedly footloose and no one knows how far they have moved. The rock they are made of has flopped over in recumbent folds and is older than the rock it rests on. In the Old Geology, these hills were described as large pieces of the high Taconic mountains, which had slid downhill by gravity and come to rest in the westward seas. Now they are seen variously as remnants of thrust sheets or as a possible exotic terrane.
Of all special fields within the science, glacial geology is the most evident, the least inferred. It is, for one thing, contemporary. The ice is in recess but has not gone away. In addition to the ice of Antarctica, there is ice more than two miles thick over Greenland. There are twenty-seven thousand square miles of ice on Alaska (four per cent of Alaska). In Alaska, as in Switzerland and co-working space maastricht elsewhere in the world, you can see cirque glaciers feeding into the master glaciers of alpine valleys. You can see that the cirque glaciers have dug scallops into the high ridges, and where three or four cirque glaciers have been arranged like petals they have tom away the rock until all that remains is a slender horn-the Kitzsteinhom, the Finsteraarhorn, the Matterhorn. Not only are ice sheets, ice fields, and individual glaciers operating today with effects observable as motions occur, but wherever they once flowed their products remain in abundance and intact. They have come and gone so recently. The evidence may seem obvious now, but not until the eighteen-thirties did anyone comprehend its significance. There had been insights, hints, and clues. James Hutton, the figure from the Scottish Enlightenment who by himself developed the novel view of the world on which modem geology rests, mentioned in his Theory of the Earth (1J95) that the gravels and boulders of Switzerland’s great valley co-working space amsterdam appeared to have been put there by ancient extensions of alpine ice. But Hutton, who formed his theory among the scratched granites and drifted gravels of Scotland, never suspected that Scotland itself had been a hundred per cent covered-actually dunked into the mantle-by ten thousand feet of ice.
I remembered Leonard Harris-one day at their home in Laurel, Maryland-saying, “The Brevard Zone is the sort of fault you would see in any thrust belt. With the plate-tectonic model, anybody can write a history of an area without having been there. These people have no way to evaluate what they’re doing. They just make up stories.” “Plate-tectonic interpretations often start where data stop,” Anita had said. “These people will just float microplates around. If the West is made of microplates, where the hell was the landmass that produced the pieces?” “They want to be science-fiction writers,” Leonard said. “That’s what they want to do. They really look at it in a science-fiction mode. I have never been able to do that. If you don’t know what caused something, you don’t know; and that’s the way it is.” “Yeah, but it’s a much more romantic way to look at things,” she said. “And it certainly does tum students on.” “People love it.” “It allows them to play all kinds of games without the necessity and painstaking dogwork of gathering facts. It allows them to write papers conference room amsterdam without killing themselves getting data.”
People want the science-fiction story. It’s easier to believe that pieces of the world move than it is to see a sand grain move. The principal problem about interpreting the Appalachians is that there have been no available subsurface data in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont. All interpretations, up until i979, were based on what people thought was a rooted system. Their ideas were based on offshore data, where they had 3-D-you know, seismic data, magnetic data -and these data were more or less applied onshore. The concepts were developed from the ocean to the land. Now that we are beginning to get subsurface data on land, we are testing their concepts. A lot of what people have been saying is not hanging together. Some of what they have said has hung together.” I said to them, “One would gather from the seismic lines that for a continent-to-continent collision you’d have to go pretty far east to find the suture.” “I don’t think you can go far east enough,” Anita said. “The oceanic basin is out there.” “When you start working on the shore and you look offshore, you’ve got an immediate problem,” Leonard said. “They tell us that the oldest ocean crust that has ever been found is Jurassic. Onshore, we conference room amsterdam have everything that’s ever been built-from the Precambrian on up. We have a continuum. We have something that has been preserved much longer. We have rock that is nearly four billion years old. So we have a problem relating.